Products: Energy Policy & Planning Group
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Analysis of Introduction of Plug-in Electric Hybrid Vehicles to Honolulu
The primary aim of this study is to understand the benefits and barriers which might be associated with the introduction of PHEV technology to Hawaii. This analysis illustrates that PHEV’s represent a much larger and more pervasive strategic opportunity than is generally appreciated in the State. Specific interests that guided our research were:
- To estimate the impacts which relatively modest PHEV penetration rates might have on Hawaii’s GHG emission and fuel substitution goals.
- To determine whether PHEV’s could be introduced to Hawaii without triggering major generating capacity additions.
- To consider whether PHEV’s might play a role in optimizing the use of renewable wind resources that might otherwise be un-usable.
- To assess the role of PHEV’s in the Hawaii’s attempt to control GHG emissions.
Targeting Hawaii Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Emission Forecasts and Their Implications for Act 234
Act 234 calls for the state of Hawai‘i to return its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Under a business as usual environment, we forecast Hawai’i’s 2020 emissions to be between 18 and 34 percent above 1990 levels. Since transportation and electricity account for about 75 percent of Hawai’i’s GHG emissions, most likely a large share of the reductions will need to come from these sectors for Hawai’i’ to comply with Act 234.
Energy and Greenhouse Gas Solutions: Hawai‘i Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile 1990 and 2005
In an effort to effect national and global climate change policy to address the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, the Hawai'i legislature passed the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2007, Act 234. Act 234 calls for Hawai'i to return its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Here we report an inventory of emissions for the state for 1990 and 2005, and forecast emissions growth out to 2020.
Concepts in Greenhouse Gas Regulation: A Primer on Meeting ACT 234
In 2007, Hawaii became the second State after California to adopt binding greenhouse gas reductions targets in ACT 234. The legislation follows the example set by California in attaining 1990 levels of greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2020. The State of Hawaii Department of Health Clean Air Branch is tasked to regulated emissions through the use of market-based mechanisms - essentially building a market for greenhouse gas pollution. While ACT 234 was in many ways modeled after California’s AB32, it is also recognized that Hawaii has unique economic and environmental characteristics. Hawaii will require policies tailored to its island features. This brieﬁng provides a primer on greenhouse gas regulation options and how they might be applied to the case of Hawaii.
An Overview of U.S. Regional and National Climate Change Mitigation Strategies: Lessons for Hawai‘i
The challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions will differ from place to place, although it is particularly unique in the case of islands. Islands tend to be highly oil and tourism-dependent. Questions as to what type of market-based mechanism, such as cap-and-trade or a carbon tax, and what type of regional partnerships will be appropriate for an island economy are questions that Hawaii policy-makers face. A 10-member Task Force was created as a result of ACT 234 to develop the work plan for reaching the target reduction. This brieﬁng is designed to help the Task Force and others to better understand what climate mitigation policies have been developed elsewhere, the choices made in developing the policy architecture, what types of economic and environmental analyses support these policy decisions, and how examples of other states, regional cooperatives, and international initiatives may be applicable to the case of Hawaii.
Endogenous Substitution Among Energy Resources and Global Warming
The theory of resource extraction has focused primarily on extraction when there is a single, homogeneous demand for the resource. In reality, however, we observe the simultaneous extraction of different resources such as oil, coal, and natural gas and multiple demands such as trasportation, residential and commercial heating, and electricity generation. This paper develops a model with multiple resources and grades and multiple demands. The model is simulated with extraction cost, estimated reserves, and energy demand data for the world economy. It is shown that if historical rates of cost reduction in the production of solar energy are maintained, more than 90 percent of the world's coal will never be used. The world will move from oil and natural gas use to solar energy. Global temperatures will rise by only about 1.5–2 degrees centigrade by the middle of the next century and then decline steadily to preindustrial levels, even without carbon taxes. These results are significantly lower than those predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and suggest that the case for global warming may be seriously overstated.
Chakravorty, U., Roumasset, J., Tse, K., 1997. Endogenous substitution among energy resources and global warming. Journal of Political Economy, 105 (6), 1201-1234. Reprinted in Hoel, M. Recent developments in environmental economics. Edward Elgar, 2004.