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Economic Currents

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Biocultural Restoration Workday Draws Community Together to Plant an Agroforest

Mahealani Botelho of Kākoʻo ʻŌiwi shares the vision for biocultural restoration of agroforestry in Puʻulani in an opening ceremony (photo by Randy Fish).

“I ola ʽoe, i ola mākou nei.” A community member recites the pule (blessing), “my life is dependent on yours, your life is dependent on mine”, to a native aʽaʽliʽi shrub as she gently tucks them into the ground. The side of the ridge is a sea of colorful flags marking holes where nearly 200 energetic volunteers ages one through 85 plant a variety of native and other culturally valued trees and shrubs. Here the goal of restoration is not just the final outcome, but the process of bringing community together and restoring cultural connection to place.

Julianna Rapu and her keiki plant an ʻāweoweo (photo by Leah Bremer).

Puʽulani stretches like a finger into the Heʽeia wetland, a ridge rising above the alluvial plane. Restoring the traditional name, heavenly or spiritual ridge, and planting culturally important species are the first steps in the process of reconnecting people with this puʽu. Staff at the local nonprofit Kākoʽo ʽŌiwi (kakoooiwi.org) are working to restore ecological and cultural vitality to over 400 acres here.

Community workday at Puʻulani, Kāko’o ʻŌiwi on February 12, 2019 (photo by Sarah Weibe).

Many native, culturally important plants are only found in remnant forests high up in the mountains. There, it can take significant time and energy to reach them, meaning many people, especially keiki and kupuna, do not have the opportunity to interact with the plants. The plants at Puʽulani are only a short walk or drive from Kākoʽo ʽŌiwi’s entrance past an extensive network of loʽi. As one volunteer reflected, “it is uplifting to see so many people come together from diverse walks of life.”

Kākoʻo ‘Ōiwi loʻi and road to Puʻulani (photo by Sarah Wiebe).

“I’ve done a lot of restoration, but I have never seen ohiʽa next to ʽawa and ʻāweoweo. Why did you put them together?” a volunteer asked. The goal of many restoration projects is to re-establish native forest as it was pre-European contact. Instead, at Puʽulani we are bringing together plants that help us achieve both biological and cultural (biocultural) restoration goals such as strengthening community connectedness to place, producing lei making materials, medicine, and food, sequestering carbon, and reducing erosion in a land use system called agroforestry.

Agroforestry is the intentional combination of trees with crops and/or livestock. At first glance, a multi-story agroforest may look similar to a native forest, but the mix of plants is often different from what might grow together without human intervention and may include native and introduced species.

Agroforests were widespread in Hawaiʽi prior to European contact, yet relatively few remain today. At Puʽulani, we are interested in understanding how we can adapt traditional agroforest models to a contemporary context, designing systems that are resilient into the future.

To do this, we set up a controlled experiment testing two different restoration approaches, or species mixes. The hillside is divided into ten plots in which five plots have one set of species and the other five have a different group of species. In the plots we are tracking plant growth and survival as well as indicators of multiple ecosystem services such as soil carbon, erosion, and surveys of visitors who participate in the project. The project is a collaborative effort led by Kākoʽo ʽŌiwi’s staff and UH researchers from Botany, UHERO’s Project Environment, the Water Resources Research Center, and NREM.

By documenting benefits and costs of our two approaches over time, we hope to provide land managers, farm owners, and others with information that can use to make decisions about adopting agroforestry on their land.

While we are still finishing the initial agroforestry planting at Puʽulani, the keiki plants are already creating space for community to learn and feel connected. As one person expressed about their experience, “I understood the energy exchange of giving back to the land, I felt a part of the community taking care of the land that takes care of us.”

Want to get involved? Join us at Kākoʽo ʽŌiwi every second Saturday of the month to care for the agroforest and loʽi.

- Zoe Hastings, Mahealani Botelho, and Leah Bremer
Zoe Hastings is a PhD student and NSF Graduate Research Fellow interested in collaborative biocultural restoration of agroecological systems. She works closely with Mahealani Botelho and others at Kākoʻo ‘Ōiwi and the UH research team to collaboratively design the restoration and research process at Puʻulani. Leah Bremer is an Assistant Specialist with UHERO’s Project Environment and the Water Resources Research Center and a project PI alongside Tamara Ticktin and Clay Trauernicht. Many others have contributed to this effort including Kanekoa Kukea-Shultz, Nick Reppun, and all the Kākoʻo ʻŌiwi staff, as well as Angel Melone, a graduate student helping with many dimensions of the project. We thank our funders, including the United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Innovation Grants program (# NR1892510002G003), the College of Social Sciences Research Support Award, and the Heʻeia National Estuarine Research Reserve.


Hybrid Forest Restoration Benefits Communities and Increases Resilience

Photo by Ben Nyberg

Researchers from UHERO, the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa, and National Tropical Botanical Garden quantify social, ecological, and economic costs and benefits of alternative forest restoration strategies


An interdisciplinary research team from the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa (UHM) and the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG) demonstrated how collaboratively-developed forest restoration in Limahuli Garden & Preserve (Limahuli) can increase community benefits and improve resilience at lower cost than standard forest restoration programs. Because conservation managers are increasingly faced with making restoration decisions constrained by multiple goals and limited budgets, the research team collaborated with conservation professionals at Limahuli to co-design research that will directly inform adaptive management.

Specifically, authors of a newly published study in the journal Conservation Letters asked how manager-defined ecological, hydrologic and cultural metrics of success and long-term management costs vary across different restoration strategies. The researchers focused on the ahupua`a of Hā`ena on Kaua`i Island, and evaluated unrestored forest and forests restored to different states—ranging from a pre-human arrival state, to a “hybrid” state that includes mixes of native and non-native species of cultural importance. Their study site was Limahuli Valley, a 400-hectare nature preserve managed by NTBG in the most biodiverse ecoregion of the Hawaiian archipelago, which is home to dozens of endangered plants and birds found nowhere else on earth. They found that restoring forest to a hybrid state provided many of the same services that a restored ‘pre-human’ state can provide, but at a much lower cost. They also found it increased two important services: cultural value and resilience to disturbance such as hurricanes.

The paper “Restoring to the Future: Environmental, Cultural, and Management Tradeoffs in Historical versus Hybrid Restoration of a Highly Modified Ecosystem” has a diverse team of authors from the natural and social sciences as well as natural resource managers: Kimberly M. Burnett, Tamara Ticktin, Leah L. Bremer, Shimona Quazi, Cheryl Geslani, Christopher A. Wada, Natalie Kurashima, Lisa Mandle, Pua`ala Pascua, Taina Depraetere, Dustin Wolkis, Merlin Edmonds, Thomas Giambelluca, Kim A. Falinski, and Kawika B. Winter.

“Restoring forests to a pre-human state on a landscape scale has been idealized, but—given the amount of functional diversity that has gone extinct in Hawai`i—such an approach is almost impossible, ecologically speaking. Beyond that, our research has shown that goal is economically impractical, and it isn’t the best way to engage community in restoration efforts,” said Dr. Kawika Winter, a multidisciplinary ecologist and Research Associate at NTBG who is the anchor author of the new study. “These results can be used by conservation practitioners to guide management actions, and to bring the community back into the forest while improving multiple ecological and social benefits; and do all this at lower costs than programs focused solely on historical restoration goals.”

The methods also have applications far beyond Hawai`i, particularly as conservation managers working in places with a history of cultural engagement with forests, and who are increasingly faced with decisions on how to fund and approach restoration efforts. This new research provides a framework to help managers identify restoration strategies addressing multiple goals in regions where restoration is challenging – areas where invasive species or other issues limit natural regeneration of native species, and/or where local populations depends on natural resources. Lower costs also offer the possibility of scaling-up, a critical consideration since island conservation is underfunded compared to continents.

Dr. Kimberly Burnett, Specialist with the University of Hawai`i Economic Research Organization and lead author of the study, said: “While conservation managers cannot make realistic decisions without considering costs, these type of tradeoff analyses are rare in restoration research. Our study provides a framework to consider these costs and benefits, while providing specific management direction for Limahuli and generalizable lessons for restoration strategies around the world.”

Dr. Tamara Ticktin, co-author on the study, Professor of Botany at UHM, and Principal Investigator on the National Science Foundation grant that funded the research, added: “Like any restoration strategy, hybrid forest restoration also has its limitations. Our study concluded that hybrid forests can be an excellent strategy within a landscape mosaic that also includes more expensive restoration strategies needed to preserve the most endangered species. The value of our multidisciplinary approach is that it provides a powerful tool for resource managers to take into consideration the different metrics that are important to them, and to make more informed decisions about what that landscape mosaic of restored forest could look like.”

This study was supported through funding from a National Science Foundation grant to the University of Hawai`i.

Linking land and sea to inform ahupua‘a (ridge-to-reef) management in Hawai‘i – NSF Coastal SEES

Posted March 19, 2018 | Categories: Blog, Project Environment

A community member from Haʻēna, located on the windward side of Kauaʻi (see Fig 1A), said “come” as she offered her hand inviting me in. I stepped into the forming circle of the pule (prayer), and we stood together silently listening to an oli chanted by a local kupuna (elder) (see Photo 1A). This moment blessed the opening of a public hearing which eventually led to the passage of rule package of Haʻēna Community Based Subsistence Fisheries Management Area (CBSFA) in mid-2015. The significance of this event cannot be understated. This was the first time in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi that local-level fisheries management rules based on indigenous Hawaiian practices were recognized. Among these rules, a marine refuge (Makua Pu‘uhonua) was designated in the sheltered lagoon of Makua reef to protect a key fish nursery area (see Fig 1B). That same year, the community of Kaʻūpūlehu, located on the leeward side of Hawaiʻi Island (see Fig 1A), initiated a law implementing a 10-year fishing rest period known as ‘Try Wait’ (see Photo 1B). This resulted in the protection of the entire coral reef fringing reef area (see Fig 1C).

Figure 1. Hā‘ena and Ka‘ūpūlehu ahupua‘a location. (A) Location of Hā‘ena and Ka‘ūpūlehu ahupua‘a on Kauaʻi and Hawaiʻi along the main Hawaiian Island chain, with island age and the direction of the prevailing north-east tradewinds and ocean swell indicated. Land use/cover and marine closure/fishing rest area are shown for (B) Hā‘ena and (C) Ka‘ūpūlehu.

Photo 1. (A) Pule at Haʻēna prior to the public hearing for the CBSFA package rules, (B) Gathering at Kaʻūpūlehu prior to the public hearing for the ‘Try Wait’ fishing rest area.

These two communities embody a cultural renaissance that seeks to revive customary management approaches, such as pono fishing practices, kapu (traditional closures), and the ahupua‘a (ridge-to-reef) approach in Hawai‘i to protect terrestrial, freshwater, and marine resources. Both communities initiated these marine closures to protect fish species that feed on algae (herbivorous fish). Without these herbivorous species, algae blooms can cover the reef when excess nutrients flow into the sea from the land. By eating the algae, these protected fish create space for new corals to settle and ensure the persistence or resilience of the reefs. Resilience has been defined as the capacity of an ecosystem to cope with disturbances without shifting to an alternative state, while maintaining its functions and supporting human uses. These local communities are also interested in a better understanding of how land-based sources of pollutants from golf courses, lawns and cesspools affect their marine ecosystems. Even with healthy herbivorous fish populations, these pollutants take a toll on coral reefs, especially with increases in ocean temperature and acidity as a result of climate change. It is important to these communities, and the health of all marine ecosystems, to ensure that future planning takes these impacts into account to promote coral reef resilience to climate change.

Ridge-to-reef management has been widely advocated to foster coral reef resilience, though the degree to which managing land-based pollutants can benefit coral reefs varies among places. In an effort to promote coral reef resilience to climate change, we adopted the traditional ahupua‘a framework to study the effect of existing coastal development on coral reefs and support the restoration of community-based management in Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands. In addition to their engaged communities, we focused on these two locations because they are very different in terms of human coastal development and natural coral reef structure. Hā‘ena is mostly rural with a number of private residences along the coast (see Fig 1B). Kaʻūpūlehu is both commercially and residentially more developed than Hāʻena, with two large luxury resorts, a golf course, and several private residences along the southern end of the coast (see Fig 1C). The powerful waves in Hā‘ena have over time carved wider and shallower reef flats and produced shallow lagoons protected from the swell by well-developed reef crests. In comparison, the coral reefs of Ka‘ūpūlehu are younger and form a relatively narrow fringe on the steep slope of that island.

Effective ridge-to-reef management requires improved understanding of land-sea linkages and tools to evaluate the effects of land (e.g. nutrients carried through groundwater) and marine drivers (e.g. wave power and reef topography) on coral reefs. To accomplish this, we developed a framework to link land to sea through groundwater and identify areas on land to manage human-derived nutrients and promote coral reef resilience (see Fig 2). We applied this framework in Hā‘ena and Ka‘ūpūlehu ahupua‘a, to compare outcomes from these different places and inform place-based ridge-to-reef management.

Fig 2. Linked land-sea modeling framework. Based on (A) climate, groundwater, and nutrient concentration data, (B) groundwater flow and nutrient concentrations were modeled. (C) Nutrient flux from anthropogenic drivers were added to the background nutrient flux. (D) A land-sea link was created by sub-dividing the groundwater model domain into ‘flow tubes’ ending at pour points along the shoreline. (E) The coastal discharge models used the groundwater flow and nutrient flux and GIS distance-based models to generate the land-based driver grid data. (F) The wave model and bathymetry data were coupled with (G) GIS-based models to generate the marine driver grid data. (H) The coral reef predictive models were calibrated on coral reef survey data. (I) Outputs were: (1) response curves, (2) maps of benthic and fish indicators, and (3) a linked land-sea decision-support tool.

Geologically older and exposed to the trade winds, Hā‘ena receives high rainfall, resulting in steeply eroded cliffs, with high surface and groundwater flow (see Fig 3A). Geologically younger and located in the rain shadows of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea mountains, Ka‘ūpūlehu is very dry and barely eroded, resulting in low surface flow and high groundwater flow (see Fig 3B). More rain in Hā‘ena means that nutrients are more diluted (less concentrated) than Ka‘ūpūlehu which is much drier. Our groundwater models showed that groundwater in Ka‘ūpūlehu has high levels of nitrogen from natural sources. At Hā‘ena, most nutrients come from natural processes due to abundant rainfall and groundwater flow. The key sources of human-derived nutrients were wastewater from houses on cesspools at Hā‘ena and the golf course and wastewater from the injection well at Kaʻūpūlehu.

Fig 3. Illustration of the groundwater system at Hā‘ena and Kaʻūpūlehu. (A) Hā‘ena is located on old, wet, wave exposed coast of Kauai, (B) Kaʻūpūlehu is young, dry, and wave sheltered.

To measure the resilience of the coral reefs at each location, we looked at four benthic groups and four fish groups based on their ecological roles and cultural importance to the communities. The benthic groups were crustose coralline algae (CCA), hard corals, turf, and macroalgae. CCA and corals are active reef builders which provide habitat for reef fishes. CCA also stabilize the reef in high-wave environments. Abundant benthic algae can be a sign of high nutrients or low numbers of herbivorous fish, which can harm coral health through competition for space. Algae-eating fish identified as important by the communities (e.g., surgeonfishes and parrotfishes) were modeled based on their feeding modes and ecological role: (1) browsers, (2) grazers, and (3) scrapers.

Our coral reef models showed that high wave power at Hā‘ena has shaped the living community of the reefs which are dominated by CCA and turf algae with many grazers and less scrapers (see Fig 4A). Makua lagoon area is an exception where corals are able to grow, sheltered from powerful waves by a well-developed reef crest. In contrast, low wave power in Ka‘ūpūlehu has resulted in coral dominated reefs with high turf and many grazers and scrapers (see Fig 4B). Our coral reef models also showed that land-based nutrients from groundwater can increase benthic algae, suppress coral and CCA, and decrease numbers of locally important fish at both sites.

Fig 4. Illustrations of the coral reefs. Coral reef community in (A) Hā‘ena and (B) Kaʻūpūlehu.

Coral reefs in Hā‘ena seem less susceptible to nutrient inputs from coastal development because they benefit from dilution and mixing, due to high freshwater and wave power. Hā‘ena is rural with limited development or agriculture, so most of the nutrients come from natural processes, with the exception of land areas to the east of the ahupua‘a where nutrients are largely human-derived (see Fig 1B). These areas that contribute high human nutrients lie upstream from the protected reef fish nursery at Makua. We identified this reef as vulnerable to algae blooms and coral bleaching due to the nearness of human-derived nutrient sources, limited mixing from shallow depth and low wave power, and abundant corals and turf algae (marked in red in Fig 5A). To promote coral reef resilience to climate change, Hā‘ena community can focus on upgrading cesspools in the priority areas that we identified, located upstream from Makua (located in blue zone in Fig 5A).

On the other hand, Ka‘ūpūlehu coral reefs seem more vulnerable to nutrient inputs from coastal development due to high levels of background nitrogen in the groundwater and limited dilution and mixing from low rainfall and wave power. Additionally, Ka‘ūpūlehu’s plentiful coral cover is prone to coral bleaching. Based on our findings, the community can focus on not increasing phosphorus inputs from the wastewater injection well (located in the pink zone in Fig 5B) to reduce the vulnerability of coral reefs located downstream (marked in green tea in Fig 5B). In addition, the community can help foster resilience of their coral reefs (marked in red in Fig 5B) by ensuring that environmentally sound practices are continued when fertilizing the golf course, particularly in the land areas located upstream from Uluweuweu bay and Kahuwai bay (located in blue zone in Fig 5B). This will also help to protect the water quality of a culturally important groundwater spring (Wai a Kāne) that was identified by the Ka‘ūpūlehu community in Kahuwai bay (Fig 1C).

Fig 5. Coral reef areas vulnerable to land-based nutrients and priority land areas at Hā‘ena and Ka‘ūpūlehu. (A) Hā‘ena and (B) Ka‘ūpūlehu coral reef areas vulnerable to nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) combined with the priority land areas with the highest human derived nutrients and therefore, where management action should focus on managing wastewater and fertilizers practices.

This research shows that place matters! Different environmental conditions make place-based solutions essential. Second, protecting herbivorous fish is key for coral growth and recovery. Last but not least, efforts to protect coral reefs need to address nutrient inputs from golf courses and cesspools. Using this framework, we located coral reefs vulnerable to land-based nutrients and linked them to areas on land where limiting sources of human-derived nutrients could prevent increases in benthic algae and promote chances of coral recovery from bleaching. Following on this research, we used this framework to assess the three human factors most relevant to these communities and across Hawai‘i more broadly: coastal development, fishing and climate change. More to come!

Note: This work was funded by the NSF Coastal SEES and formed a chapter of my PhD dissertation at the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management (refer to the published article at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193230). The NSF Coastal SEES project Principal Investigators were: Tamara Ticktin (UHM Botany), Kim Burnett (UHERO), Stacy Jupiter (Wildlife Conservation Society, Melanesia), Alan Friedlander (UHM Biology and National Geographic), Tom Giambelluca (UHM Geography), Mehana Vaughan (UHM NREM), Kawika Winter (National Tropical Botanical Garden), Lisa Mandle (Natural Capital Project, Stanford), and Heather McMillen (NREM). Special thanks to the researchers who contributed to this work, in particular Robert Whittier, Kostantinos Stamoulis, Leah Bremer, Natalie Kurashima, and Cheryl Geslani. Many thanks to a collaborating artist, Sophie Eugène, for the illustrations and the Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (ian.umces.edu/symbols/) for the marine symbols. I would like to also thank Tamara Smith for editing this piece. Finally, we are grateful to our community and landowner partners in Kaʻūpūlehu and Haʻēna who inspired this research and made this project possible.

- Jade Delevaux
Geospatial scientist in the Department of Geology & Geophysics. School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology


Makena Coffman appointed to Climate Change Commission

UHERO congratulates Makena Coffman on her appointment to Honolulu's Climate Change Commission. The goal of the commission is to assess potential impacts of climate change on Hawaii, and to provide policy makers with recommendations to address these impacts.

Makena Coffman is the co-director of Project Environment, UHERO Research Fellow, and Professor of Urban and Regional Planning.

Cost-Effectiveness of Herbicide Ballistic Technology to Control Miconia in Hawaii

UHERO is working with Dr. James Leary (CTAHR) to assess cost effectiveness of Herbicide Ballistic Technology (HBT) operations to control invasive miconia (Miconia calvescens) plants before reaching maturity. Based on studies in Costa Rica, Tahiti and Australia, we can interpret spatial and temporal implications of management driven by miconia’s fecundity, dispersal, seed bank longevity and recruitment. We find that the dispersal kernel of miconia in the East Maui Watershed is closely matched to a similar probability density function developed from miconia naturalized in North Queensland, Australia (Fletcher and Westcott 2013). In this spatial model, 99% of recruitment was within 609 m with rare stochastic events (i.e., 1%) extending out to 1644 m. Based on these biological features, one autogamous, mature plant can impact up to 850 ha (i.e., 2100 acres) of forested watershed with hundreds to thousands of dispersed progeny germinating asynchronously over several decades (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. The dispersal kernel displays as a raster layer creating an 850-ha area calculation with corresponding probability density function (color shades).

Effective management is achieved when target mortality outpaces biological recruitment. Cacho et al. (2007) coined the term ‘‘mortality factor’’ described by the simple equation: m=Pd x Pk, where the probabilities of detection (Pd ) and kill (Pk)are equal determinants of the “mortality” product. Our current Pk is 0.98 for all HBT treatments. With this effective and reliable treatment technique, management outcomes largely depend on detection (Leary et al. 2013; Lodge et al. 2006). Koopman (1946) introduced the mathematical framework for estimating the probability of detection: Pd=1-e-c, where the probability of detection asymptotically approaches 1.0 with increasing coverage (Fig. 2). In operations, imperfect detection can be compensated by frequent interventions compounding coverage levels over time, but with obvious diminishing returns (Leary et al. 2014).

Figure 2. Probability of detection (blue) and the inverse for the equally important confirmation of no targets (orange). Note gray dash connotation of a theoretically “perfect” sensor, where coverage is equal to detection and confirmation.

The variable costs for HBT operations (e.g., flight time and projectiles) are driven by target density (Leary et al 2013, Leary et al. 2014). With that knowledge, we estimate the cost to manage the area (i.e., 850 ha) impacted by the dispersal of new progeny created by a mature plant. A new mature miconia with two panicles may produce ~300-400 progeny. With a single, incipient target being such a high risk, intensive efforts should be matched to comprehensively search the entire impact area over the several decades with a level probability of detection (and equal confirmation of no targets) of all progeny recruits. For instance, with 320 propagules dispersed, Pd would need to exceed 0.9968 with coverage at 5.77 s per 100 m2 pixel totaling ~136 hours of effort over the entire impact area over four decades (Fig. 3A). Any level of coverage less than that (including 99%) would be prone to missing a target that ultimately reaches maturity and newly replenishes the seed bank (Fig. 3B). Furthermore, an overwhelming majority of search effort would actually be dedicated to the confirmation of no targets, where, for instance 87% of effort is invested in looking for 1% of the targets dispersed out to the perimeter.

Figure 3. (A) Search effort (EFT; hours) over a 43-year period to match the level of coverage with the probability of detection from a random search effort. (B) is the reproduction of 2nd generation progeny by undetected targets of the 1st generation shown as Base 10 log scale.

Based on this model, we estimate accrual of future management costs ranging from $169,000-337,000 for every mature target detected, with the increase from the base cost dependent on increasing propagule loads and the static cost to treat each those individuals detected.

- James Leary, Kimberly Burnett and Christopher Wada



Cacho, O.J., Hester, S. and Spring, D., 2007. Applying search theory to determine the feasibility of eradicating an invasive population in natural environments. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 51(4), pp.425-443. 

Fletcher C. S. and Westcott D. A.. 2013. Dispersal and the design of effective management strategies for plant invasions: matching scales for success. Ecological Applications 23:1881–1892. 

Koopman, B.O. (1946). Search and Screening. Operations Evaluations Group Report no. 56, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA. 

Leary, J.J., Gooding, J., Chapman, J., Radford, A., Mahnken, B. and Cox, L.J., 2013. Calibration of an Herbicide Ballistic Technology (HBT) helicopter platform targeting Miconia calvescens in Hawaii. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 6(2), pp.292-303. 

Leary, J., Mahnken, B.V., Cox, L.J., Radford, A., Yanagida, J., Penniman, T., Duffy, D.C. and Gooding, J., 2014. Reducing nascent miconia (Miconia calvescens) patches with an accelerated intervention strategy utilizing herbicide ballistic technology.

Lodge, D.M., Williams, S., MacIsaac, H.J., Hayes, K.R., Leung, B., Reichard, S., Mack, R.N., Moyle, P.B., Smith, M., Andow, D.A. and Carlton, J.T., 2006. Biological invasions: recommendations for US policy and management. Ecological Applications, 16(6), pp.2035- 2054. 

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