Leah Bremer

Faculty Associate Specialist UHERO and Water Resources Research Center, UHERO Environment Director
Leah Bremer


Ph.D., Geography, University of California at Santa Barbara – San Diego State University, 2012
M.S., Conservation Biology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand-Macquarie University, Australia, 2004
B.A., Psychology (Spanish minor), Northwestern University, 2001

Research Interests

Ecosystem services, social-ecological systems, watershed management and conservation, land-use change, water resources.

Leah joined UHERO and the Water Resources Research Center in 2017. Her work focuses on interdisciplinary, applied, and problem-driven research related to water and watershed policy and management. As a geographer and conservation scientist by training, she views social and environmental challenges and solutions as intricately inter-connected and so works with collaborative teams of researchers, community groups, agencies, non-profits, and others to co-produce knowledge with the goal of informing effective and equitable decision making. Her work broadly focuses on three inter-related themes: 1) illuminating the links between people and the environment through various lenses, including ecosystem services, biocultural restoration of agroecological systems, and inclusive valuation; 2) improving land and water management decisions to account for the multiple ways people use and value these resources, including through links to groundwater dependent ecosystems; and 3) critical evaluation of the social and ecological outcomes of ecosystem services policies and programs, including water funds in Latin America, with the goal of improving program effectiveness and equity. She is also cooperating faculty with the Department of Geography and Environment, the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, and the Biocultural Initiative of the Pacific at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, as well as an affiliate with the Gund Institute for Environment and a research fellow with Fundación Cordillera Tropical, an NGO in Ecuador that she worked with for many years.

Selected Publications

Selected Grants

2023-2028 Hawaiʻi Community Foundation. Improving linkages between State of Hawaiʻi water management needs and educational and career pathways at the University of Hawaiʻi. Principal Investigator. 

2023-2026 Cooperative Institute for Research to Operations in Hydrology (CIROH). Supporting equitable nature-based solutions for flooding. Principal Investigator. 

2023-2024  Kamehameha Schools. Supporting ʻŌiwi agroforestry through strengthening networks and understanding outcomes and potential financial incentives. Principal Investigator. 

2023-2024  The Nature Conservancy. Economic Valuation of the Kauaʻi Watershed Alliance. Principal Investigator.

2022-2025 National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. Resilient Ala Way – Enhancing Flood Mitigation through Invasive Species Control. Co-Investigator.

2022-2024 National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. Partnerships for Puʻuloa (Pearl Harbor) Shoreline Biocultural Restoration. Co-Investigator.

2022-2024 United States Geological Survey Water Resources Research Institutes Program. Strengthening Understanding of Linked Land-Sea Systems in American Samoa. Principal Investigator.

2022-2024 University of Hawaiʻi Sea Grant College Program. Building capacity for community-based agroforestry under climate change. Principal Investigator.

2021-2023 Pacific Islands Climate Adaptation Center. Linking models to outcomes: how to Hawaiʻi stakeholders use and contribute to land-to-sea ecosystem service analyses. Co-Investigator.

Selected Publications

Bremer, L.L., Brauman, K.A. and Echavarría, M., 2023. Toward more equitable ecosystem investment programs—Adaptation and equity are central to the design and functioning of successful water funds. Conservation Letters, p.e12974.

Bremer, L.L., Nelson, S., Jackson, S., Izquierdo-Tort, S., Lansing, D., Shapiro-Garza, E., Echavarría, M., Upton, C., Asquith, N., Isyaku, U. and Asiyanbi, A., 2023. Embedding local values in Payments for Ecosystem Services for transformative change. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability64, p.101354.

Okuhata, B.K., Delevaux, J.M.S., Richards Donà, A., Smith, C.M., Gibson, V.L., Dulai, H., El‐Kadi, A.I., Stamoulis, K., Burnett, K.M., Wada, C.A. and Bremer, L.L., 2023. Effects of multiple drivers of environmental change on native and invasive macroalgae in nearshore groundwater dependent ecosystems. Water Resources Research59(7), p.e2023WR034593.

Mosquera, G. M., Hofstede, R., Bremer, L.L., Asbjornsen, H., Carabajo-Hidalgo, A., Célleri, R., … & Suárez, E. (2023). Frontiers in páramo water resources research: A multidisciplinary assessment. Science of The Total Environment, 164373.

Kang, S., Kroeger, T., Shemie, D., Echavarria, M., Montalvo, T., Bremer, L.L., Bennett, G., Barreto, S.R., Bracale, H., Calero, C. and Cardenas, A., (2023). Investing in nature-based solutions: Cost profiles of collective-action watershed investment programs. Ecosystem Services, 59, 101507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2022.101507

Hastings, Z., Ticktin, T., Wong, M., Kukea-Shultz, K., & Bremer, L.L. (2023). Non-native fallows hold high potential for restoration through agroforestry in a Pacific Island Ecosystem. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment. 324, 108214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2022.108214

Loos, J., Benra, F., Berbés-Blázquez, M., Bremer, L.L., Chan, K., Egoh, B., Felipe-Lucia, M., Geneletti, D., Keeler, B., Locatelli, B. and Loft, L., (2022). An environmental justice perspective on ecosystem services. Ambio. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-022-01812-1

Gibson, V., Bremer, L.L., Burnett, K., Lui, N., & Smith, C. (2022). Biocultural values of groundwater dependent ecosystems in Kona, Hawaiʻi. Ecology and Society, 27(3). https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-13432-270318

Bremer, L. L., Coffman, M., Summers, A., Kelley, L. C., & Kinney, W. (2022). Managing for diverse coastal uses and values under sea level rise: perspectives from Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi. Ocean & Coastal Management, 225, 106151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2022.106151

Brauman, K. A., Bremer, L. L., Hamel, P., Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F., Roman-Dañobeytia, F., Bonnesoeur, V., et al. (2022). Producing valuable information from hydrologic models of nature-based solutions for water. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 18(1), 135–147. https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4511

Okuhata, B. K., El-Kadi, A. I., Dulai, H., Lee, J., Wada, C. A., Bremer, L. L., et al. (2022). A density-dependent multi-species model to assess groundwater flow and nutrient transport in the coastal Keauhou aquifer, Hawai‘i, USA. Hydrogeology Journal, 30 (1), 231–250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-021-02407-y

Bremer, L. L., Keeler, B., Pascua, P., Walker, R., & Sterling, E. (2021). Nature-based solutions, sustainable development, and equity. In Nature-based Solutions and Water Security (pp. 81–105). Elsevier.

Cassin, J., Matthews, J. H., Lopez-Gunn, E., Bremer, L. L., Coxon, C., Dominique, K., et al. (2021). Nature-based solutions: Action for the 21st century. In Nature-based Solutions and Water Security (pp. 445–454). Elsevier.

Dulai, H., Smith, C. M., Amato, D. W., Gibson, V., & Bremer, L. L. (2021). Risk to native marine macroalgae from land-use and climate change-related modifications to groundwater discharge in Hawaiʻi. Limnology And Oceanography Letters. https://doi.org/10.1002/lol2.10232

Meza-Prado, K., Bremer, L. L., Nelson, S., Brauman, K. A., Vargas, A. M., & Gould, R. K. (2021). “Putting Suppliers on the Map:” Centering Upstream Voices in Water Funds Outreach. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 174(1), 85–105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1936-704x.2021.3362.x

Wada, C. A., Burnett, K. M., Okuhata, B. K., Delevaux, J. M., Dulai, H., El-Kadi, A. I., Gibson, V., Smith, C., & Bremer, L. L. (2021). Identifying wastewater management tradeoffs: Costs, nearshore water quality, and implications for marine coastal ecosystems in Kona, Hawai‘i. Plos One16(9), e0257125. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0257125

Brauman, K. A., Bremer, L.L., Hamel, P., Tocachi, B. F. O., Roman‐Dañobeytia, F., Bonnesoeur, V., Arapa, E., & Gammie, G. (2021). Producing Valuable Information from Hydrologic Models of Nature‐Based Solutions for Water. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4511

Bremer, L.L., Nathan, N., Trauernicht, C., Pascua, P. A., Krueger, N., Jokiel, J., Barton, J. & Daily, G. C. (2021). Maintaining the Many Societal Benefits of Rangelands: The Case of Hawai‘i. Land, 10(7), 764. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070764

Bremer, L.L., DeMaagd, N., Wada, C. A., & Burnett, K. M. (2021). Priority watershed management areas for groundwater recharge and drinking water protection: A case study from Hawai ‘i Island. Journal of Environmental Management286, 111622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111622

Bremer, L.L., Elshall, A.S., Wada, C.A., Brewington, L., Delevaux, J.M.S., El-Kadi, A.I., Voss, C.I., & Burnett, K.M. (2021). Effects of land cover and watershed protection futures on sustainable groundwater management in Hawaiʻi. Hydrogeology Journal, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-021-02310-6

Melone, A., Bremer, L. L., Crow, S. E., Hastings, Z., Winter, K. B., Ticktin, T., Rii, Y.M., Wong, M., Kukea-Shultz, K., Watson, S.J., & Trauernicht, C. (2021). Assessing Baseline Carbon Stocks for Forest Transitions: A Case Study of Agroforestry Restoration from Hawaiʻi. Agriculture11(3), 189. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030189

Mandle, L., Estrada-Shields, A., Chaplin-Kramer, C., Mitchell, G.E.M., Bremer, L.L., Gourevitch, J.D., Hawthorne, P., Johnson, J., Robinson, B.E., Smith, J.R., Sonter, L.J., Verutes, G.M., Vogls, A.L, Daily, G.C., & Ricketts, J.H. (2021). Increasing decision relevance of ecosystem service science. Nature Sustainability4(2), 161-169. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-020-00625-y

Gould, R., Bremer, L.L., Pascua, P., & Meza Prado, K. (2020). Frontiers in cultural ecosystem services: Toward greater equity and justice in ecosystem services research and practice. Bioscience, 70(12), 1093-1107. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biaa112

Winter, K.B., Rii, Y.M., Reppun, F., Hintzen, K.D., Alegado, R.A., Bowen, B.W., Bremer, L.L. et al. (2020). Collaborative research to inform adaptive co-management: a framework for the Heʻeia National Estuarine Research Reserve, Ecology and Society. 25(4):15.

Elshall, A.S., Arik, A.D, El-Kadi, A.I., Pierce, S., Burnett, K.M, Wada, C.A., Bremer, L.L. & Chun, G. (2020). Groundwater sustainability: a review of the interactions between science and policy. Environmental Research Letters, 15(9), 093004. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ab8e8c

Engels, J.L., Watson, S., Dulai, H., Burnett, K.M., Aga, A., DeMaagd, N., Wada, C.A., McHugh, Sumida, B., & Bremer, L.L. (2020). Collaborative research to support urban agriculture in the face of change: the case of Sumida watercress farm. Plos One. 15(7): e0235661. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235661

Hastings, Z., Ticktin, T., Botelho, M., Reppun, N., Kukea-Shultz, K., Wong, M., Melone, A., & Bremer, L.L. (2020). Integrating co-production and functional trait approaches for inclusive and scalable restoration solutions. Conservation Science and Practice, 2(9): e250.  https://doi.org/10.1111/csp2.250

Winter, K.B., Lincoln, N.K., Berkes, F., Alegado, R.A., Kurashima, N., Frank, K.L., Pascua, P., Rii, Y.M., Reppun, F., Knapp, I.S.S., McClatchey, W.C., Ticktin, T., Smith, C., Franklin, E.C., Oleson, K., Price, M.R., McManus, M.A., Donahue, M.J., Rodgers, K.S., Bowen, B.W., Nelson, C.E., Thomas, B., Leong, J.-A., Madin, E.M.P., Rivera, M.A.J., Falinski, K.A., Bremer, L.L., Deenik, J.L., Gon III, S.M., Neilson, B., Okano, R., Olegario, A., Nyberg, B., Kawelo, A.H., Kotubetey, K., Kukea-Shultz, J.K. & Toonen, R.J. (2020). Ecomimicry in Indigenous resource management: optimizing ecosystem services to achieve resource abundance, with examples from Hawaiʻi. Ecology and Society, 25(2). https://doi.org/10.5751/es-11539-250226

Burnett, K.M, Elshall, A.S., Wada, C.A., Arik, A., El-Kadi, A.I., Delevaux, J.M.S, & Bremer, L.L. (2020). Incorporating spring discharge protection into sustainable groundwater management: A case study from Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Hawaiʻi. Frontiers Water, 2(14). https://doi.org/10.3389/frwa.2020.00014

Bremer L.L, Hamel P, Ponette-González A.G., Pompeu P.V., Saad S.I., & Brauman, K.A. (2020). Who Are we Measuring and Modeling for? Supporting Multilevel Decision-Making in Watershed Management. Water Resources Research, 56, e2019WR026011. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019WR026011

Hamel P, Bremer L.L, Ponette-González A.G., Acosta E, Fisher J.R.B., Steele B, Cavassani A.T., Klemz C., Blainski E., & Brauman, K.A. (2020). The value of hydrologic information for watershed management programs: The case of Camboriú, Brazil. Science of the Total Environment, 705 (135871). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135871

Nelson S.H., Bremer L.L, Meza Prado, K. & Brauman, K.A. (2020). The Political Life of Natural Infrastructure: Water Funds and Alternative Histories of Payments for Ecosystem Services in Valle del Cauca, Colombia Development and Change, 51(1), 26–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/dech.12544

Hayes, T., Grillos, T., Bremer, L.L., Murtinho, F. and Shapiro, E. (2019). Collective PES: More than the sum of individual incentives. Environmental Science & Policy, 102, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2019.09.010

Bremer, L.L., Wada, C.A., Medoff, S., Falinski, K., & Burnett, K.M. (2019). Contributions of native forest protection to water supplies in East Maui. Science of the Total Environment, 688, 1422-1432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.220

Delevaux, J.M.S., Stamoulis, K.A., Whittier, R., Jupiter, S.D., Bremer, L.L, Friedlander, A., Kurashima, N., Giddens, J., Winter, K., Blaich-Vaughan, M., Burnett, K., Geslani, C., & Ticktin T. (2019). Local place-based management can reduce human impacts on coral reefs. Ecological Applications, 29(4), e01891. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1891

Bremer, L.L., Farley, K.A., Demaagd, N., Suárez, E., Tandalla, D.C., Vasco, S., Patricio, T., & Vásconez, M. (2019). Biodiversity outcomes of payment for ecosystem services: lessons from páramo grasslands. Biodiversity and Conservation, 28, 885-898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-019-01700-3

Burnett, K., Ticktin, T., Bremer, L.L., Quazi, S.A., Geslani, C., Wada, C.A., Kurashima, N., Mandle, L., Pascua, P., Depraetere, T., Wolkis, D., Edmonds, M., Giambelluca, T.W., Falinski, K., & Winter, K.B. (2019). Restoring to the future: environmental, cultural, and management tradeoffs in historical versus hybrid restoration of a highly modified ecosystem. Conservation Letters, 12 (1), e12606. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12606

Bremer, L.L., Falinski, K., Ching, C., Wada, C.A, Burnett, K.M, Kukea-Shultz, K., Reppun, N., Chun, G., Oleson, K., & Ticktin, T. (2018). Biocultural restoration of traditional agriculture: cultural, environmental, and economic outcomes of lo’i restoration in Heʻeia, Oʻahu. Sustainability, 10 (12), 4502. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124502 (Part of a special issue on biocultural restoration in Hawaiʻi).

Bremer, L.L., Brauman, K.A., Nelson, S., Meza Prado, K., Wilburn, E., & Fiorini, A.C. (2018). Relational values in evaluations of social outcomes of payment for watershed services: a review. Current Opinions in Environmental Sustainability, 35, 116-123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2018.10.024

Delevaux, J.M.S., Winter, K., Jupiter, S., Blaich-Vaughan, M., Stamoulis, K., Bremer, L.L, Burnett, K., Garrod, P., Troller, J. & Ticktin, T. (2018). Linking Land and Sea through Collaborative Research to Inform Contemporary applications of Traditional Resource Management in Hawai‘i. Sustainability, 10(9), 3147. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093147 (Part of a special issue on biocultural restoration in Hawaiʻi).

Delevaux, J.M.S., Jupiter, S.D., Stamoulis, K.A., Bremer, L.L., Wenger, A.S., Dacks, R., Garrod, P., Falinski, K.A., & Ticktin, T. (2018). Scenario planning with linked land-sea models inform where forest conservation actions will promote coral reef resilience. Scientific Reports, 8, 12465. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.1891

Bremer, L. L., L. Mandle, C. Trauernicht, P. Pascua, H. L. McMillen, K. Burnett, C. A. Wada, N.    Kurashima, S. Quazi, T. Giambelluca, P. Chock, & Ticktin, T. (2018). Bringing multiple values to the table: assessing future land-use and climate change in North Kona, Hawaiʻi. Ecology and Society, 23(1), 33. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09936-230133

Delevaux, J.M.S., Whittier, R, Stamoulis, K.A., Bremer, L.L., Jupiter, S., Friedlander, A.M., et al. (2018). A linked land-sea modeling framework to inform ridge-to-reef management in high oceanic islands. PLoS ONE, 13(3). e0193230. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193230

Game, E. T., Bremer, L.L., Calvache, A., Moreno, P.H. Vargas, A., Rivera, B., & Rodriguez, L.M. (2018). Fuzzy models to inform social and environmental indicator selection for conservation impact monitoring. Conservation Letters, 11(1), e12338. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12338

Wada, C., Bremer, L.L, Burnett, K., Trauernicht, C., Giambelluca, T., Mandle, L., Parsons, E., Weil, C., Kurashima, N., & Ticktin, T. (2017) Estimating cost-effectiveness of dry forest restoration using spatial changes in water yield and landscape flammability under climate change. Pacific Science. 71(4), 401-424. https://doi.org/10.2984/71.4.2

Farley, K. A., & Bremer, L.L. (2017). “Water Is Life”: Local Perceptions of Páramo Grasslands and Land Management Strategies Associated with Payment for Ecosystem Services. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 4452, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/24694452.2016.1254020

Vogl, A.L., Goldstein, J.H., Daily, G.C.,Vira, B., Bremer, L.L., McDonald, R.I., Shemie, D. Tellman, B., & Cassin. J. (2017). Mainstreaming investments in watershed services to enhance water security: Barriers and opportunities. Environmental Science and Policy, 75, 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.05.007

Bremer, L.L., Farley, K.A., Chadwick, O.A., & Harden, C.P. (2016). Changes in carbon storage with land management promoted by payment for ecosystem services. Environmental Conservation, 43, 397–406. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892916000199

Bremer, L.L., Auerbach, D.A., Goldstein, J.H., Vogl, A.L., Shemie, D., Kroeger, T., Nelson, J.L., Benítez, S.P., Calvache, A., Guimarães, J., Herron, C., Higgins, J., Klemz, C., León, J., Sebastián, J., Moreno, P.H., Nuñez, F., Veiga, F., & Tiepolo, G. (2016). One size does not fit all: Natural infrastructure investments within the Latin American Water Funds Partnership. Ecosystem Services, 17, 217–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.12.006

Naeem, S. Ingram, J.C., Varga, A., Agardy, T., Barten, P., Bennett, G., Bloomgarden, E., Bremer, L.L. et al. (2015). Getting the science right when paying for nature’s Services. Science. 347 (6227), 1206-1207. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1403

Bremer, L.L., Delevaux, J., Leary, J.K., Cox, L.J., & Oleson, K.L. (2015). Opportunities and strategies to incorporate ecosystem services knowledge and decision support tools into planning and decision making in Hawaiʻi. Environmental Management. 55(4), 884-899. 

Tallis, H., J. Lubchenco + 238 co-signatories (including L.L. Bremer). (2014). Working together: A call for inclusive conservation. Nature. 515, 27-28. https://doi.org/10.1038/515027a

Rosenthal, A., Verutes, G., McKenzie, E., Arkema, K.K., Nirmal, B., Bremer, L.L., Olwero, N., & Vogl, A.L. (2014). Process matters: a framework for conducting decision-relevant assessments of ecosystem services. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services, and Management. https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2014.966149

Bremer, L.L., Farley, K.A., & Lopéz-Carr, D. (2014). Conservation and livelihood outcomes of payment for ecosystem services in the Ecuadorian Andes: what is the potential for win-win? Ecosystem Services 8, 148-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.03.007

Bremer, L.L., Farley K.A., & Lopéz-Carr, D. (2014). What factors influence participation in Payment for Ecosystem Services programs? An evaluation of Ecuador’s SocioPáramo program. Land Use Policy, 36, 122-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.08.002

Harden, C.P., Hartsig, J., Farley, K.A., Lee, J, & Bremer, L.L. (2013). Effects of land-use change on water in Andean páramo grassland soils. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103(2), 375-384. https://doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2013.754655

Farley K.A., Bremer L.L., & Harden C.P. (2012). Changes in carbon storage under alternative land uses in biodiverse Andean grasslands: implications for payment for ecosystem services. Conservation Letters, 6(1), 21-27. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00267.x

Farley K.A., Anderson W.G, Bremer L.L., and Harden C.P. (2011). Compensation for ecosystem services: an evaluation of efforts to achieve conservation and development in Ecuadorian páramo grasslands. Environmental Conservation, 38(4), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S037689291100049X

Bremer L.L. & Farley K.A. (2010). Does plantation forestry restore biodiversity or create green deserts? A synthesis of the effects of land-use transitions on plant species richness. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(14), 3893-3915. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-010-9936-4

Selected Technical Reports, Book Chapters, and Outreach Publications

Bremer, L.L., Keeler, B., Walker, R., Sterling, S., & Pascua, P. (In Press). Nature-based solutions, sustainable development, and equity. In: Cassin, J., Lopez-Gunn, E, & Matthews, J. Nature-Based Solutions and Water Security: An agenda for the 21st century. Elsevier.

Bremer, L.L., Elshall, A., Wada, C., Brewington, L., Delevaux, J., El-Kadi, A., Voss, C., & Burnett, K. Groundwater management for people and ecosystems under a changing climate: Insights from the Puʻuloa aquifer. UHERO blog, 26 July 2021.

Bremer, L.L., Burnett, K.M, & Wada, C.A. (2020). Economic benefits of hydrologic services from watershed protection and restoration. UHERO brief.

Bremer, L.L. & Brauman K.A. (2020). Who are we measuring and modeling for? Supporting real-world watershed management. Global Water Forum, August 14, 2020.

Oleson, K.L.L., Ostergaard-Klem, R., Lynch, M.K., & Bremer, L.L. (2020). Transforming the Economy through Ocean, Ohia and Ohana: a holistic understanding of economic progress can help guide Hawaii past COVID-19. Civil Beat, Honolulu, HI, June 10, 2020.

Hastings, Z., Botelho, M., & Bremer, L.L. (2019). Biocultural restoration workday draws community together to plant an agroforest. UHERO blog, 5 March, 2019.

Bremer, L.L., DeMaagd, N., Wada, C.A., & Burnett, K.M. (2019). Identifying priority watershed management areas for groundwater recharge protection on Hawai‘i Island. Prepared for the Hawaiʻi County Department of Water Supply. UHERO Report for the Hawaiʻi County Department of Water Supply.

Brauman, K, Benner, R., Benitez, S., Bremer, L.L. & Vigerstol, K. (2019). Water Funds. In: Mandle, L., Ouyang, Z., Salzman, J., Daily, G. (2019). Green Growth That Works: Natural Capital Policy and Finance Mechanisms Around the World. Island Press.

Wada, C.A., Bremer, L.L., DeMaagd, N., Medoff, S., Cloudwatcher, S., & Burnett, K. (2018). Identifying areas of cost-effective watershed management for groundwater recharge protection on Hawai‘i Island. UHERO Report for the Hawaiʻi Community Foundation. 

Bremer, L.L. (2018). Water Funds Toolbox online training: Social Impact Assessment. The Nature Conservancy’s Water Fund Toolbox, 2018.

Zyla, C., Apse, C., Barreto, S.R., Benitez, S., Bradely, A., Bremer, L.L et al. (2018). Water Funds: Field Guide 2018. The Nature Conservancy.

Bremer, L.L., Wada, C., Burnett, K., Medoff, S., Page, J., Lee, S., Allen, S., & Falinki, K. (2018). Economic Valuation of The Nature Conservancy’s Watershed Conservation Activities in Waikamoi Preserve, Maui. UHERO report for The Nature Conservancy of Hawaiʻi.

Abell, R., Asquith, N., Boccaletti, G., Bremer, L. et al. (2017). Beyond the Source: The environmental, economic and community benefits of source water protection. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 

Bremer, L.L. & Meza Prado, K. (2017). Seven Things We Learned By Listening To Those Who Make Water Funds Happen. Cool Green Science 4 August 2017

Bremer, L.L, Vogl, A., Petry, P., & Debievre, B (eds). (2016). Bridging Theory and Practice in Hydrological Monitoring in Water Funds. The Nature Conservancy, CONDESAN, and The Natural Capital Project Practitioner guidance document. Spanish and English versions.

Bremer, L.L., Gammie, G, & Maldonado, O. 2016. Designing and Assessing Water Fund Projects: Participatory Social Impact Assessment for AquaFondo, the Water Fund for Lima. Forest Trends & The Natural Capital Project case study. Spanish and English versions.

Bremer, L. (2015). Six Things I’ve Learned About Water Funds. Natural Capital Project Blog. 1 November 2015.

Auerbach, D. & Bremer, L.L. (2014). Mosquitoes, heat, and floods: the challenges of monitoring in water funds. Cool Green Science. 18 September 2014.

Higgins, J.V. and Zimmerling, A. (Eds). (2013). With contributions from: Bremer, L., Boucher, T., Higgins, J., Kroeger, T.,Leisher, J., and Petry, P. A Primer for Monitoring Water Funds. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy.

Bremer L.L. and Farley K.A. (2011). Carbon trading. In: Schiffman, H., & Robbins, P. (Eds), Green Issues and Debates, Sage Green Series Volume 12. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Farley, K.A., Bremer L. (2010). Timber plantations. In: Warf, B (Ed), Encyclopedia of Geography. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 2834-2836.

Bremer L., Carr, D.L., Farley, K.A. (2010). Afforestation. In: Mulvaney, D., Robbins, P. (Eds), Green Politics: An A to Z Guide. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Carr, D.L., Bremer, L. (2010). Entropy in Agriculture. In: Mulvaney D (Ed), Green Politics. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

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